The fact that the 2012 London Olympics is going to be held entirely during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadhan in August this year poses the question: does fasting affect sports performance?
In July 2012, it is estimated that more than 11,000 athletes will compete, of which about a quarter of whom will be Muslims who will be expected to undertake a dawn-to-dusk complete abstinence of all food and water. That means, at the height of summer, no food or drink from something like from 4.30am till 9.30pm daily.
Lets take a look at how fasting may affect sports performance. Broadly, it does so in the following ways:
1. Energy restriction – while it is generally held that the total calories will drop in a day, the food intake is very cultural and depends also on whether the diet is balanced. So it is possible to ingest more calories than one would normally do when not fasting with consequent weight gain. Experts are divided whether there is any curb on energy at all.
2.Hydration – dehydration of more than 2% of body weight will impair aerobic exercise performance, despite the attempt by the body to conserve water, as seen by one’s highly concentrated urine when fasting and the fact that one tends to sweat less when exercising.
3.Body temperature is governed by circadian rhythm of one’s body and explains why body temperature, muscular strength and reflexes become optimum in the late afternoon, at the peak of the circadian rhythm. When fasting, the alteration of sleep (sleep deprivation)and altered eating habits affect the circadian rhythm. This may cause a reduction in exercise performance.
4.Training load – while it is generally believed that fasting will affect training, largely by a perception of easy tiredness, professional coaches have established that, if diet, sleep, a balanced diet and hydration are maintained, athletes can undergo the same physical training load as those who are non-fasting.
Most authorities accept that athletes who maintain their energy intake and prefasting hydration status and who get adequate sleep can maintain their training load during fasting without suffering any substantial impairment in performance. Of course, if the fasting is on religious grounds, this is a personal matter for the athlete to decide as to whether, in the first place, he should fast at all and defer the fasting period till after the race.
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- How Muslims can win Olympic gold during Ramadan (newscientist.com)
The recent revelation of an American football coach sexually assaulting 10 boys who were placed under his charge (see here) must have placed many parents under some distress. How did the culprit get away with it undetected for so many years? Why did not the victims raise the alarm?
Like many sexual predators, Jerry Sandusky developed strong relationships of love and trust with his victims before molesting them. Quite often, such pedophiles position themselves into positions of respect and trust, such as being football coaches, physiotherapists and boy scout leaders. This is not to say, of course, that everyone in this position are sexual predators.
Child safety expert Irene van der Zande says that pedophiles know how to find and manipulate vulnerable kids – and how to put on a great show for everyone else, even members of their family. Quite often, these kids do not speak up because the person abusing them is someone they love and trust.
Van der Zande, child safety expert and the author of The Kidpower Book For Caring Adults, offers the following tips to protect children from child abusers:
1. Accept the reality that many child molesters may seem like wonderful people. Don’t be fooled by outside appearances. Pay attention to what someone is actually doing with your kids. If someone who is responsible for the care of many kids starts to single your child out for special attention, be careful. Don’t assume that someone is safe just because this person is generous, beloved, charming, and kind.
- Know the Signs of Child Sexual Abuse (aarp.org)