2000 calories..that’s what an average-sized man requires in one day. I found this interesting video and it helps explain why there is so much obesity around.
The effects of the current outbreak of the H7N9 avian influenza in China has been as varied as causing the sales of KFC to drop and causing the stock-prices of rubber-glove manufacturers to be on the uptrend..but there’s no mistaking the fact that to date, there has been 9 deaths and 28 confirmed cases (see here).
But a mystery is brewing..the first known human case was in eastern China on Feb. 19, but this was not announced to the public until March 31, some 6 weeks later. This delay in announcement is even being questioned by the heavily censored news media, such as the Communist Youth Daily, the official newspaper of the Communist Youth League.
Was there deliberate concealment by the health authorities? The answer may not be that straightforward. Possible reasons for the delay may include that the new virus strain shows unusual properties and that Chinese laboratories might have been doing tests to detect the previous H5N1 strain instead. To recap, the H5N1 outbreak struck in 2003 where a total of 247 people died. Measures instituted at that time included the controversial administration of several million vaccines to the chicken population at a significant economic cost. This could also be a reason why the news has been suppressed.
Avian influenza (also called avian flu, bird flu) is a flu virus that infects poultry but can be transmitted to man by direct or indirect exposure to infected live or dead poultry or contaminated environments. It is generally classified of low virulence (it does not spread to man easily). There is no evidence that the disease can be spread to people through properly cooked food. You can get more info from the WHO Fact Sheet here.
At one time, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was routinely prescribed to any woman reaching menopause and asking for it, in an effort to prevent fractures,osteoporosis, dementia and other chronic diseases.
That was fine but recent developments have advocated the reverse – only women with severe symptoms of menopause like flushing,headaches and excessive sweating are given a short course to relieve the symptoms. Otherwise, HRTs are now not advised at all.
What is the evidence for the change in stance? The US funded Women’s Health Initiative, known as WHI, was halted in 2002 when initial results showed women taking a combination of estrogen and progestin had a higher risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke than women who received a placebo( or ‘dud’ pill). This marked a drastic shift in opinion, so that now, these combination pills are no longer advocated. Indeed, even oestrogen-only pills are now taboo.
You can find more facts about HRT here:
For alternatives to hormone therapy, see here: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/women/pht_facts.pdf
Its the holiday season again, and many will be embarking to distant lands.. and with it comes the risk of exposure to new bugs (currently, the Norovirus virus outbreak is the vogue. Read more here.) Seasoned business travelers know that to reduce their chances of getting sick, its best to maximize the use of soap, water and hand sanitizer and minimize the number of times they touch their face.
Apart from that, what about other risks? Dehydration poses a greater risk, drying out the body’s natural defenses against germs. Avoid coffee and alcohol (no, its not a devious plan by airlines to reduce their beverage costs), which act as diuretics, and try to drink a cup of water an hour. Saline solutions can keep your nose and eyes moist, providing a barrier against germs. Dehydration makes the body’s defence mechanisms perform less efficiently and thus make the entry of germs easier.
While going around, preventing dehydration remains important, particularly in hot arid climates, where body water loss is not too obvious due to the absence of sweating.To avoid drinking contaminated water, watch out for recycled tap-water impersonating as bottled mineral water (look for a sealed cap). For that matter, possibly contaminated water could also be present in ice, uncooked salads and fruits that are eaten without peeling. These methods of reducing the odds of getting sick are important, as contaminated foods (due to agents causing infectious diseases) remain the number one killer of humans on earth.It is said that 80% of all infectious diseases are transmitted by direct or indirect human contact
Many air travellers claim they caught an infection from other passengers but, with the efficient air filtering systems of modern aircraft, where air is circulated 15-20 times per hour through efficient biofilters, chances of this happening is low unless the offending party is coughing and sneezing repeatedly within two rows of oneself.
At the hotel, I do recommend laying the bedspread aside, because it is washed rarely, and making sure the sheets are crisp and clean; if they are not, request another room. Check the mattress for bed bugs. Wipe down the telephone, night stand, remote control and bathroom with disinfectant. Disinfect the handle on the minibar fridge, and relax.
Indeed, various gadgets are available to make travelling safe – personal hand-sanitizers, personal air purifiers, UV scanners that destroy contaminants and the Silky Dreamsack, which “puts a layer between you and suspect bedding.”
All very exotic, but I would really recommend that the only cost-effective device that you will ever need is a bottle of hand-sanitiser..and refraining from touching your eyes,face or mouth. Not forgetting the ubiquitous mineral water bottle!
For the very first time, a supreme court has ruled that using mobile or cordless phones is directly linked to causing brain tumors, affirming what many scientists have been saying for years now about the dangers of cell phone radiation. The U.K.’s Telegraph reports that 60-year-old Innocente Marcolini, who developed a tumor in his trigeminal nerve, was ruled to have suffered this fate as a result of using his mobile handset for up to six hours every day for 12 years.
Italy’s Supreme Court in Rome, ruled that there is a “causal link” between Marcolini’s mobile phone use and the non-cancerous tumor that caused the entire left side of his face to become paralyzed. Experts provided evidence at a recent trial showing that the electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile and cordless phones damages cells.
Though Marcolini’s brain tumor is non-cancerous, it still reportedly threatened to kill him because it had been encroaching on his carotid artery, which is the major blood vessel responsible for transporting blood to the brain. The tumor also developed directly next to where Marcolini typically held his phone next to his ear, illustrating how significantly mobile phone radiation can disrupt proper brain cell function.
In the face of repeated studies that there was no direct causative effect, this landmark ruling takes a new perspective on the possible dangers of prolonged mobile phone usage. To add fuel to the debate, last year the WHO ( World Health Organisation) urged limits on mobile use, calling them a Class B carcinogen.
International radiation biology expert Michael Repacholi said: “Studies show no evidence of cancer”. But he quickly adds : “If you are worried, use a headset, hands-free or loudspeaker.”
- Mobiles can give you a tumour, court rules (thesun.co.uk)
Some friends asked me how can they know when someone has a stroke and what they should do about it. Its summarised quite well on this chart.
A few words about the last point - stroke is a medical emergency. If given through the veins within three hours of the start of symptoms, a clot-busting drug called tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can reduce long-term disability for the most common type of stroke, by dissolving the clot that caused the blockage. In some cases, the stroke may be completely cured. As this drug can only be given in hospital, its important to transport a person suspected of a stroke to the Emergency Department as soon as possible.
- Earlier Treatment with Clot-Busters Boosts Survival in Stroke (everydayhealth.com)
- Emergency Medicine: Recognize the Signs of Stroke (omtimes.com)
- Stroke Treatment – Why Every Second Counts (everydayhealth.com)
The fact that the 2012 London Olympics is going to be held entirely during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadhan in August this year poses the question: does fasting affect sports performance?
In July 2012, it is estimated that more than 11,000 athletes will compete, of which about a quarter of whom will be Muslims who will be expected to undertake a dawn-to-dusk complete abstinence of all food and water. That means, at the height of summer, no food or drink from something like from 4.30am till 9.30pm daily.
Lets take a look at how fasting may affect sports performance. Broadly, it does so in the following ways:
1. Energy restriction – while it is generally held that the total calories will drop in a day, the food intake is very cultural and depends also on whether the diet is balanced. So it is possible to ingest more calories than one would normally do when not fasting with consequent weight gain. Experts are divided whether there is any curb on energy at all.
2.Hydration – dehydration of more than 2% of body weight will impair aerobic exercise performance, despite the attempt by the body to conserve water, as seen by one’s highly concentrated urine when fasting and the fact that one tends to sweat less when exercising.
3.Body temperature is governed by circadian rhythm of one’s body and explains why body temperature, muscular strength and reflexes become optimum in the late afternoon, at the peak of the circadian rhythm. When fasting, the alteration of sleep (sleep deprivation)and altered eating habits affect the circadian rhythm. This may cause a reduction in exercise performance.
4.Training load – while it is generally believed that fasting will affect training, largely by a perception of easy tiredness, professional coaches have established that, if diet, sleep, a balanced diet and hydration are maintained, athletes can undergo the same physical training load as those who are non-fasting.
Most authorities accept that athletes who maintain their energy intake and prefasting hydration status and who get adequate sleep can maintain their training load during fasting without suffering any substantial impairment in performance. Of course, if the fasting is on religious grounds, this is a personal matter for the athlete to decide as to whether, in the first place, he should fast at all and defer the fasting period till after the race.
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- How Muslims can win Olympic gold during Ramadan (newscientist.com)